A comprehensive report conducted by the National Academies' Institute of Medicine (IOM) supports the association between service in the U.S. military and increased risk of developing ALS. The IOM was charged with reviewing and evaluating all relevant scientific literature on ALS and veterans. It concludes that there exists "suggestive evidence of an association between military service and later development of ALS." Since 2000, studies have been conducted to assess the ALS incidence rate in Gulf War veterans. Most notably, a study jointly funded by the VA and DOD concluded that those deployed in the first Gulf War were twice as likely to develop ALS as their non-deployed counterparts, and potentially, at younger ages. Air Force veterans, it determined, faced the highest risk, at 2.7 times that of those not serving. In 2005, The Harvard School of Public Health broadened the case for ALS's military relevance. Its epidemiological study found that men with a history of any military service in the last century were nearly 60% more likely to die of ALS than men in the general population. The recent IOM report refers to this study as "well-designed and well-conducted." In July 2008, in response to the evidence, Secretary of Veterans Affairs Dr. James B. Peake announced that ALS is to be considered a presumptively compensable illness for all veterans with 90 days or more of continuously active service in the military.